#Holograms, #VR, #Technology for Kids, #HomeSecurity
Posted on February 15th, 2017
02/15/2017 @ Wework Chelsea, 115 West 18th Street, NY, 4th floor
The speakers were
- Jon Troutman, Founder and Chief Creative Officer at Canary (all-in-one smart home security system)
- Bethany Koby, Founder and CEO at Technology Will Save Us (DIY technology kits for kids)
- Sophia Dominguez, Founder and CEO at SVRF (the first search and discovery engine for VR content) and Founder at AllThingsVR (weekly curated newsletter highlighting top VR news)
- David Rose, Founder and CEO at PRSONAS (interactive self-service holograms)
The first speaker, David @ PRSONAS spoke about their product which is a hologram persona that can serve as a greeter at retail stores: provide product information, financial guidance, intake of medical symptoms, etc. The greeter is a flat holographic image of a person in what David called 2 ½-d display.
The software behind the hologram can provide appropriate hand gestures, show videos, instruct users to input data on a tablet, etc.
David talked about how they have customized the image to avoid falling into the uncanny valley (close to human-looking so feels creepy) by modeling the image as a non-human character.
Next, Sophia @ SVFR spoke about how her company is striving to become the common site for distribution of VR, #AR and #MR videos. She likened today for VR as the early 1990’s were for Yahoo, when distribution of web content was still in its infancy.
She talked about the barriers to widespread VR production. These include lack of universally available hardware to record VR, lack of editing tools, but most importantly, we don’t yet know how to tell a story taking advantage of the VR experience.
Next, Bethany @TechnologyWillSaveUs spoke about how her company is creating kits for students to experiment in creating their own technology. The kits contain sensors, motors, etc. and are linked to a programming language on their web portal which is an extension of Scratch.
As an example she demonstrated a programmable wrist band that can react to motion, etc.
Bethany then talked about their company strategy which emphasizes a range of products.
- Create a range of products: variety of prices, can create bundled products
- Product-market-fit: hardware is more difficult, so put development is on a tight production schedules with lots of feedback. Monitor ROI for various products.
- By having a range of product, there are activities for all parts of the company at any given time.
She talked about how the company strives to stay ahead of the competitions (Little Bits, Lego Mindstorms) by carefully target price points and creating a wide range of products for different age groups.
Finally, John @Canary talked about their stand-alone, in-home security system which is connected to an app on your phone.
He emphasized the importance of Product design = Relationship design
- Quality time – the app needs to interactive. They made it easier to access the time line of videos taken by the system
- Crisis management – can contact the police if there is a notification – help the homeowner overcome a crisis: the assist the home-owner filing an insurance claim.
- Trust – connected-home customers are concerned about privacy. Use ICASlabs recently released device security protocols
- A little magic – surprise and delight. Good example is Netflix onboarding that asks for your movie preferences then starts recommending movies upon the first use.
John also mentioned that they store videos of arrivals and departures, temperature, air quality, how active are occupants. Videos are stored 24 hours or 1 month depending on the contract. They are partnering with insurance companies to get homeowner discounts for using Canary.
The #Cannabis #Entrepreneur
Posted on January 18th, 2017
01/18/2017 @AlleyChelsea, 119 West 24th St., NY 4th floor
A panel of four talked about the current and future state of the marijuana industry
Ryan Smith @Leaflink – (https://www.leaflink.com/) Join More Than 750 Dispensaries & 75 Leading Brands on the Platform for Orders, Sales & Relationship Management. The need to find the right people especially to deal with the complexity, regulatory, compliance that are not present in many other industries. This is especially true of technology. They scale across states by buying supplies within state, (product cannot go across state lines) and partner with other business: but better business are structured as franchisees so they are separate across states. They are a technology company, so they don’t touch the product. Jeff Sessions will probably focus on immigration, not drugs.
Melissa Meyer @Women Grow (http://womengrow.com/) leadership summit – connect patients with data. Uses Angel for recruiting.
Morgan Paxhia @ Poseidon asset management (http://poseidonassetmanagement.com/). Operational issues persiste: 3 years ago the industry was very undercapitalized. It’s still undercapitalized, but less so (Still low salaries). Some generic software packages are used, but customized packages need to be developed. In California: Small farmers create coops, but taxes are still too high, so the black market is still large. Marijuana policy program – need to figure out how to work with the administration.
Lauren Rudick @Hiller(http://www.hillerpc.com/) The first question is is it legal? Washington allows lawyers to own businesses. Seed-to-sale tracking needed. Washington & Massachusetts – easy to qualifying for medical. Colorado, Oregon – easy for business to operate: stable. For profitability Puerto Rico might be the best state since there is no federal tax. Hippa compliant for medical sales.
#InternetOfThings, #Drones, #Robots, and #Music
Posted on November 16th, 2016
11/16/2016 @WeWork, 115 West 18th Street, NY, 4th floor
The speakers were
- Marco and Jack Parisi, Artists in Residence at ROLI. ROLI, a London-based music technology startup, is changing the way people make music. ROLI has just launched BLOCKS, a modular music studio, that will be featured at all Apple stores globally this holiday season. ROLI has raised $43M from FirstMark, Balderton and Foundry Group.
- David Lyman, Founder and CEO of BetterView (drone marketplace for aerial photography jobs)
- Leif Jentoft, Co-Founder of RightHand Robotics (intelligent machines for e-commerce order fulfillment)
- Charlie Key, Founder and CEO of Losant (IoT solution platform)
- Cormac Driver, Head of Product at Temboo (software stack for IoT applications)
Charlie Key @Losant talked about asset tracking.: fleet managment, shipment tracing, equipment tacking, heavy duty parenting. The package often consists of two parts: GPS tracking + communication (usually cellular). Hologram allows purchase of data by the byte with data sent every 5 minutes.
Use Google’sAPI to look up locations. Then check if inside a geofence.
David Lyman@BetterView captures and analyzes drone data. They have analyzed 4200 rooftops for insurance companies. Experts currently analyze the images. They are moving toward deep learning. The main drivers of the increased use of drones are Regulation, hardware, experience.
He sees a longer term opportunity: 5mm workers that should have a drone in their trucks – fence installers, HVAC maintenance.
Vaughn @Temboo: SAAS to connect actuators and sensors to the cloud, gave several examples of IoT in industry:
- Monginis Foods Ltd. – cakes and pastry in India, UK, EMEA: retrofit equipment and processes to implement IoT. Examples include
- retrofitting x-ray machines that scan every cake and pastry – automate alerts.
- Monitor freezers and refrigerators to reduce food spoilage.
- Place temperature sensors as oven monitors
- Integrate with payment and logistics systems to make everything more efficient.
- One customer monitors soil moisture, electrical conductivity, light – in agriculture
- Aircraft repair company – monitor parts storage and temperature and humidity of storage for audit. Tracks technical manuals.
- Manufacturer of lawn mowers includes sensors in motors
The usual configuration is Sensor monitoring – triggered notifications — actuator control. Vaughn gave the following advice to IoT startups:
- Start with a small but real, concrete problem
- Focus on saving time or money to create real value at the start
- Quick wins help build confidence and expertise
- Get internal backing based on having a a working system
- See how the data and functionality create additional uses
- See how existing application can be modified for other users
- Build new Iot capabilities on top of existing ones
Leif@Righthand robotics: Intelligent robotic order-picking systems, talked about opportunities he sees in the industrial robotics space.
Existing industrial ecosystem: build components + system integrators -> end application
Most of the cost is in integration, so he is looking for systems that are configurable by end users (simpler integration) . Examples include: Universal robotics (UR5), ReThink robotics (Sawyer), Franka produce collaborative robotics that users can program.
He gave some examples of industrial robotic applications:
- Robots as a service – a machine that thins the small lettuce plants. Farmers can rent when they need it.
- Navii is used by Lowes to tell customers were to find items in inventory.
He sees the key is having machines learning to handle variation as manual labor is hard to scale.
Finally, Roli, demonstrated a music technology that increases the flexibility and capabilities of accomplished musicians while being easy enough for beginners to create their own music.
Their original device in 2012 replaced a keyboard with a continuous sensitive surface: The Seaboard. They are introducing a more general devices (the block) that has the flexibility to play the sounds of multiple instruments, but in a simple and elegant package.
Listening to Customers as you develop, assembling a #genome, delivering food boxes
Posted on September 21st, 2016
09/21/2016 @FirstMark, 100 Fifth Ave, NY, 3rd floor
JJ Fliegelman @WayUp (formerly CampusJob) spoke about the development process used by their application which is the largest market for college students to find jobs. JJ talked about their development steps.
He emphasized the importance of specing out ideas on what they should be building and talking to your users.
They use tools to stay in touch with your customers
- HelpScout – see all support tickets. Get the vibe
- FullStory – DVR software – plays back video recordings of how users are using the software
They also put ideas in a repository using Trello.
To illustrate their process, he examined how they work to improved job search relevance.
They look at Impact per unit Effort to measure the value. They do this across new features over time. Can prioritize and get multiple estimates. It’s a probabilistic measure.
Assessing impact – are people dropping off? Do people click on it? What are the complaints? They talk to experts using cold emails. They also cultivate a culture of educated guesses
Assess effort – get it wrong often and get better over time
They prioritize impact/effort with the least technical debt
They Spec & Build – (product, architecture, kickoff) to get organized
Use Clubhouse is their project tracker: readable by humans
Architecture spec to solve today’s problem, but look ahead. Eg.. initial architecture – used wordnet, elastic search, but found that elastic search was too slow so they moved to a graph database.
Build – build as little as possible; prototype; adjust your plan
Deploy – they will deploy things that are not worse (e.g. a button that doesn’t work yet)
They do code reviews to avoid deploying bad code
Paul Fisher @Phosphorus (from Recombine – formerly focused on the fertility space: carrier-screening. Now emphasize diagnostic DNA sequencing) talked about the processes they use to analyze DNA sequences. With the rapid development of laboratory technique, it’s a computer science question now. Use Scala, Ruby, Java.
Sequencers produce hundreds of short reads of 50 to 150 base pairs. They use a reference genome to align the reads. Want multiple reads (depth of reads) to create a consensus sequence
To lower cost and speed their analysis, they focus on particular areas to maximize their read depth.
They use a variant viewer to understand variants between the person’s and the reference genome:
- SNPs – one base is changed – degree of pathogenicity varies
- Indels – insertions & deletions
- CNVs – copy variations
They use several different file formats: FASTQ, Bam/Sam, VCF
Current methods have evolved to use Spark, Parquet (columnar storage db), and Adam (use Avro framework for nested collections)
Use Zepplin to share documentation: documentation that you can run.
Finally, Andrew Hogue @BlueApron spoke about the challenges he faces as the CTO. These include
Demand forecasting – use machine learning (random forest) to predict per user what they will order. Holidays are hard to predict. People order less lamb and avoid catfish. There was also a dip in orders and orders with meat during Lent.
Fulfillment – more than just inventory management since recipes change, food safety, weather, …
Subscription mechanics – weekly engagement with users. So opportunities to deepen engagement. Frequent communications can drive engagement or churn. A/B experiments need more time to run
BlueApron runs 3 Fulfillment centers for their weekly food deliveries: NJ, Texas, CA shipping 8mm boxes per month.
Hardwired: product #design and delivering #magic
Posted on June 11th, 2016
06/07/2016 @ WeWork, 115 West 18rd Street, NY, 4th floor
New Lab and Techstars talked briefly before the four speakers:
- Martin Broen, VP of Global Product Design at Pepsi
- Chris Allen, Founder and CEO of iDevices (connected home products)
- Bob Coyne, Founder and CTO of WordsEye (create 3D scenes simply by describing them in words)
- Josh Clark, Founder of Big Medium (design strategy and user experience for a mobile, multiscreen world). Josh will talk about “magical UX for IoT”.
In the first presentation, Bob Coyne @Wordseye talked about his utility that takes a text description of a scene and creates an image matching that description. This allows users to create 3-d mages without complicated #3-d graphics programs.
They parse sentences to create a semantic map which can include commands to place items, change the lighting, reorient objects, etc. They see uses in education, gaming, and image search.
[Graphics are currently primitive and the manipulations are rough, but there are only 7 months old. Has promise for creating avatars and scenes for game prototypes. Text lack the subtly of gestures, so text may need to be supplemented by gestures or other inputs.]
In the second presentation, Chris Allen @ iDevices – developers of connected home products and software – talked about the evolution of the company from an initial product in 2009 which was a connected grill.
Since then they have raised $20 million, were asked by Apple to develop products for HomeKit, currently market 7 HomeKit enabled products.
Experiences he communicated:
- Do you own research (don’t rely on conventional wisdom): despite being told that $99 was too high a price, they discovered that reducing the price to $75 did not increase sales.
- Resist pivoting away from your vision, especially when you have not intellectual property advantage: a waterproof case for phones failed.
- Create a great work environment and give your workers equity
- They build products that are compatible across platforms, but concentrate on just the three main platforms: Siri, Google, Amazon.
Next, Josh Clark @BigMedium talked about his vision of the future of interfaces: they will leap off the screen combining #speech and #gestures. They will be as magically as the devices in the world of Harry Potter. Unlike the Google glass, which was always an engineering project, we should be asking how can we make any object (even of a coffee cup) do more: design for the thing’s essential ‘thingness’.
Technology should be invisible, but magical:
- You can stand in front of a mirror memory and see how you look with a different color dress, or replay a video of what you look like when you turn around or do a side-by-side comparison with a previously worn dress.
- Asthmapolis site – when you have an asthma attack, you tap an app. Over time you can see across individuals their locations when they have an attack.
- A hackathon app using the Kinect in which one gestures to grab an image off a video so a still image from that moment appears on the phone.
It’s a challenge of imagination.
If the magic fails, we need to make sure the analogue device still works.
[In some cases, magic may not be enough. For instance, Asthmapolis pivoted away from ashma alone and now concentrates on a broader range of symptoms ]
In the last presentation, Martin Brioen@Pepsi talked about how his design team uses #prototyping to lead the development of new ideas.
Different groups within Pepsi have different perspectives and different priorities, so each views ideas differently, but to the get a consensus they all was to need to interact with the new product so they can see, touch, …
At each phase of development you use a different tools concentrated on the look of it, the feel of it, the functionality, etc. At each stage people need to interact with it to test it out. Don’t wait until you have a finished product. Don’t skip steps. Consider the full journey of the consumer;
Employ the least expensive way to try it out
They are not selling product, they are selling experiences: they create a test kitchen for the road.
#Wearable future – panel discussion
Posted on May 24th, 2016
05/24/2016 @Samsung Accelerator Chelsea, 30 W 26th, NY, 7th floor
- Nora Levinson, President & CEO at Caeden (a design-driven wearable technology company)
- Ryan Shearman, Founder & CEO at Fusar (creating an ecosystem of smart helmet products)
- Meisha Brooks, Product Manager/Mechanical Engineer at The Crated (inventing solutions to help companies combine technology and apparel)
- Sumeet Shah, Senior Associate at Brand Foundry Ventures (early stage VC firm focused on consumer brands and connected devices including wearables)
The discussion including the following points
- Successful wearable don’t ask people to adopt new behaviors
- Statement pieces are the exception. E.g. some handicapped people want to show off the technology (rather than hide it). In that case, the challenge is to design the wearable so it can be worn both as a normal as well as a statement piece.
- Battery technology is the limiting factor of wearables. Until batteries hold a charge for longer, advances in wearables will emphasize doing more with less power. E.g. meditation bracelet needs to be small since it needs to have high accuracy without being bulky. Also half of the weight of Ryan’s smart helmet is from batteries.
- Wearables, like other devices, need to be designed so the product line can be broadened over time. The smart helmet started as a motorcycle helmet, but that would have limited the ability to widen the product line.
- The mainstream fashion industry wants to get into tech, but does not want to be cheesy and don’t want to undercut their brand.
- For connected devices, Apple and Google Fit are often the best way to store data while preserving privacy. Eventually there may be specific cloud appliances to store data.
- The panelist were excited about other wearbles including
- Meta – “eyes up” display system – motorcycle helmet – AR display
- Military has invested in smart textiles – medical applications.
- Soles – 3d printing of soles for shoes which offers an apparel alternative to hand sewing and injection molding.
- Carbon3d- changing the way we 3d print.
- Exo-skeletons so workers can lift heavier loads.
Posted on May 23rd, 2016
05/23/2016 @Rise, 43 W 23rd St, NY
A panel discussion was followed by a presentation by SIGFOX.
Jenny Fielding, Managing Director, TechStars, Moderator
Haytham Elhawary, Co-founder & CEO, Kinetic
Mike Kochanik, CRO, Flowthings.com
Deepak Krishnamurthy, Chief Strategy Officer, SAP
Ajay Kulkarni, Co-founder & CEO, iobeam
Allen Proithis, President, Sigfox NA
Francois Oudot, Sigfox
The panel focused on B2B IoT making the following points
- The emphasis on the internet of things has shifted toward B2B from B2C. Much of this has occurred since B2B applications can have a measurable effect on profitability
- The challenge in industrial IoT is integrating changes into the current business flow. One needs to understand how a device is used and why workers or facilities would use or not use a device. There is no substitute for understanding the business or spending time in the facility. Competitive pressures also demand that the knowledge be provided quickly.
- Cyber security is an increasing important issue with encryption key management insufficient while other methods are still being developed.
- For a small company to compete, it needs to solve a real problem and provide ROI, but most importantly, it needs to sell a vision.
Following the panel, Allen Proithis and Francois Oudot @SIGFOX talked about an alternative connectivity solution that overcomes the factors now limiting networks of IoT devices
- Battery Life
Instead of using convention networks, such as cellular or wi-fi, SIGFOX proposes a network that is
- Energy efficient – ultra narrow band, devices wake up to transit => low power consumption
- Simplicity – out-of-the-box no pairing required
- Low cost – license free ISM band, license-free standardized, low cost subscription model
- Ubiquitous connectivity – one cloud, world-wide.
Their network sacrifices bandwidth (12 byte messages) and quick response time (2 to 3 second latency) in exchange for low cost broad coverage (5 to 50 miles by one station). It is designed for devices that communicate very infrequently with the cloud and can communicate with short (12 byte) messages. Example applications are
- Preventative maintenance – washing machine failures
- Mail pick-up – button on mailbox requesting a pickup
- Leak prevention – water systems
- Livestock management
- Smart supply chain
- Forest fire prevention – smoke detection
- Launched in Western Europe. Expanding to Germany, US,…
- Your phone does lots of network signally since it needs to tell the cell tower your location. Can save a lot of battery is you only signal when you have a message.
- Message is 26 bytes including device ID and authentication hash – payload is up to 12 bytes
- Communication is bi-directional.
- Compatible with most chips on the market
#DataDrivenNYC: #FaultTolerant #Web sites, #Finance, Predicting #B2B buying behavior, training #DeepLearning
Posted on May 18th, 2016
05/18/2016 @AXA auditorium, 787 7th Avenue, NY
Four speakers presented:
- Peter Brodsky, Founder and CEO of HyperScience (AI for the enterprise)
- Louis DiModugno, Chief Data and Analytics Officer at AXA US(global leader in insurance)
- Amanda Kahlow, Founder and CEO of 6Sense (B2B predictive intelligence)
- Nicolas Dessaigne, Founder and CEO of Algolia (hosted search API that delivers instant results)
First, Nicolas Dessaigne @Algolia (Subscription service to access a search API) talked about the challenges building a highly fault-tolerant world-wide service. The steps resulted from their understanding of points of failure within their systems and the infrastructure their systems depend on.
Initially, they concentrated on their software development process including failed updates. To overcome these problems, they update one server at a time (with a rack of servers), do partial updates, use Chef to automate deployment.
Then they migrated their DNS provider from .io to .net TLD to avoid slow response times they had seen intermittently in Asia. This was followed by the upgrades:
Feb 2015. Set up clusters of servers world-wide , so users have a server in their region: lower latency
March 2015. Physically separate server clusters within a region to different providers
May 2015. Create fallback DNS servers
July 2015. Put a third data center online to make indexing robust
April 2016. Implement a 1 second granularity for their system monitoring
Next, Matt Turck interviewed Louis DiModugno @AXA . In the US, AXA’s main focus is on predictive underwriting of insurance process. They also have projects to incorporate sensors into products and correctly route queries to call centers based on the demographics of the customer. World-wide they have three analysis hubs: France, US, Singapore (coming online).
Louis oversees both data and analytics in the U.S. and both he and the CTO report to the CIO. They are interested in expanding their capabilities in areas such as creating unstructured databases from life insurance data that are currently on microfiche.
In the third presentation, Amanda Kahlow @6Sense talked about their business model to provide information to customers in B2B commerce. They analyze business searches, customer web sites, visits to publisher’s (e.g. Forbes) web sites. Their goal is to determine the timing of customer purchases.
B2B purchases are different from B2C purchases since
- Businesses research their purchases online before they buy
- The research takes time (long sales cycle)
- The decision to buy involves multiple people within the company
So, there are few impulse buys and buyer behavior signals that a purchase is imminent.
The main CMO question is when (not who).
6sense ties data across searches (anonymous data). The goal is to identify when companies are in a specific part of the buying cycle, so sales can approach them now. (Example: show click-to-chat when the analytics says that the customer is ready to buy)
Lastly, Peter Brodsky @HyperScience spoke about tools they are developing to speed machine learning. These include
- Tools to make it easier to add new data sets
- need to match fields, such as date which may be in different formats
- what to do with missing data
- need labeled data – lots of examples
- Speed up training time
The speed up is done by identifying subnets within the larger neural network. The subnets perform distinct functions. To determine if two subnets (in different networks) are equivalent, move one subnet from one network to replace another subnet in another network and see if the function is unchanged: Freeze the weights within the subnet and outside the subnet. Retrain the interface between the net and the subnet.
This creates building blocks which can be combined into larger blocks. These blocks can be applied to jump start the training process.
Industrial #Wearables & #IoT
Posted on May 17th, 2016
05/17/2016 @ Manhattan Ballroom, 29 W 36th Street, NY, 2nd floor
Anupam Sengupta @GuardHat (industrial safety helmet fitted with sensors monitoring 42 conditions) spoke about the helmet and the data back end. The hat is fitted with camera and microphone along with sensor for biometrics, geolocation, toxic gas, etc. The helmet is not sold, but will be available as a B2B service by year end.
Over an 8 hour shift it transmits 20 Mbytes of data. A typical work site would have from 100 to 300 workers and up to 3 shifts per day.
There is local processing on the device and data are sent real time for aggregation. Time to detect an event is 2 seconds. At the aggregation point, external data are added: weather data, location data as the building site changes.
HPCC is the back end with Lambda architecture so the data can be processed both in real time and for historical analysis.
Design considerations include:
Lack of reliability in data channel; “event stop” – data volume exceeds plan (here several people are involved with the event); devices don’t send the data stream every time; schema varies over time with conditions; temporal sequence not guaranteed
Encryption AS 256 for data transmission and storage
Radiation shielding within the helmet
Tracking limitations as agreed upon by unions and companies to preserve privacy
#Blockstack: an introduction
Posted on May 4th, 2016
05/04/2016 @ AWS popup loft, 350 West Broadway, NY
Blockstack offers secure identification based on blockchain encryption and confirmation. Six speakers described the underlying machinery and applications.
- Muneeb Ali – An Overview of Blockstack
- Jude Nelson – The Blockstack Server and CLI
- Josh Jeffryes – OpenBazaar and Blockstack Identity
- Arkadiy Kukarkin – MediaChain
- Ryan Shea – Blockstack Desktop
- Juan Benet – Blockstack Naming with IPFS
As in Bitcoin, Blockstack promises secure identification and transactions without using a central verifying agent.
The BlockStack application stack from the bottom up contains:
- Blockchain – want to use the most secure chain, which is currently bitcoin.
- Naming – intermediate pseudonym
- Identity – establish who you are
- Authentication – use electronic signature
- Storage – put pointers in the block chain, so you need storage for the actual information
- Apps built on top of the stack
- Cryptcurrency blockchain
- Virtual blockchain – gives flexibility to migrate to another cryptocurrency.
- Routing – pointers data location. Initially used a DHT (distributed hash table).
- Data on cloud servers. Could be Dropbox, S3, …
1&2 are the control plane, above that is data plane
The current implementation uses a bitcoin wallet for identity and requires 10 blockchain confirmations to set up a person.
- OpenBazaar (a place to buy and sell without an intermediary) has a long identification string for each buy/sell. Blockstack provides a secure mapping of these ids to a simpler human-readable id
- Mediachain is a data network for information on creative works in which contributed information is validated by the contributor’s identity. All objects are IPFS + IPLD objects with information saved to Merkel trees. They are working on the challenge of private key management: high volumes of registrations and the need to register on behalf of 3rd
- IPFS (interplanetary file system) proposes to
- Create a DNS based on the package content which will allow copies to be located on several locations in the network
- Greater individual control over DNS names independent of any centralized naming body
- There are three levels of naming
- The content defines the address through a hash tag. But if the blog changes, the address changes.
- Key name. a mutable layer of names that is stable even as the content changes
- DNS name. a humanly readable name that is paired with the key name